Shrestha, Binoj K., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Dharma Raj Dangol. 2009. “Lahare Banmara (Mikania micrantha) ko Atikraman; Badhdo Chunauti.” Paryabaran 89:26-30.

Publication Abstract

Gatny, Heather H., Mick P. Couper, William G. Axinn, and Jennifer S. Barber. 2009. “Using Debit Cards for Incentive Payments: Experiences of a Weekly Survey Study.” Survey Practice 2(7).

The effectiveness of incentives is well-documented in the literature (e.g., Church 1993; Singer 2002). Cash incentives are both cost-effective and easy to deliver in face-to-face surveys, or as prepaid incentives enclosed with advance letters. For larger amounts—typically used with conditional incentives—checks are often used. The cost of processing and mailing a check can be relatively expensive, especially for small incentive amounts delivered frequently. In online panels, the use of lotteries or rewards points is common, in part because of the cost of delivering repeated incentives of small value (Göritz 2006). Unfortunately these incentives are often less effective than cash.

We describe an alternative approach to incentive delivery, using automated prepaid debit cards or cash gift cards, in the context of a weekly survey with small incentive payments. While ATM or debit cards have previously been used for one-time payment of incentives (e.g., Beckler and Ott 2006; McGrath 2006) and convenience store debit cards have been used for repeated incentive payments among volunteers (Wiebe et al. 2008), we are aware of no other studies that have used this approach for repeated delivery of small incentive amounts in a survey setting. This approach has several important advantages, including reducing the cost of incentive delivery, reducing the administrative costs associated with the need to reconcile cash payments, the automation of the delivery process, and the ability to track card use.

DOI: 10.29115/SP-2009-0034

Publication Abstract

Williams, Nathalie E. 2009. “Education, Gender, and Migration in the Context of Social Change.” Social Science Research 38(4):883-896.

Although sociologists have identified education as likely determinant of migration, the ways in which education affects migration are unclear and empirical results are disparate. This paper addresses the relationship between educational attainment, enrolment, and migration, focusing on the role of gender and how it changes with evolving social contexts. Using empirical analyses based in Nepal, results indicate that educational attainment has positive effects and enrolment has negative effects on out-migration and including enrolment in the model increases the effect of attainment. In the case of women, with the changing role of gender, increased education and labor force participation, the affect of educational attainment changes drastically over time, from almost no effect, to a strong positive effect. Consideration of enrolment, and the role of gender in education, employment, and marriage may help to explain the disparate results in past research on education and migration.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.04.005

PMCID: PMC3418604